Table of Contents

Spokane chief
  • Foreword [by Steve M. Egesdal]
  • Letter from a Tribal Member [by George Hill]
  • About the Author
  • Acknowledgements
  • Introduction
  • Chapter I: Cultural, Linguistic, and Intergroup Affiliation
    • Southern Interior Culture Area
    • Macro Band Distribution and Intergroup Relations
    • Linguistic Groupings
    • Socioeconomic Intra-Areal Affiliations
      • Trade
      • Warfare
      • Horse-Stealing
      • Scalp-Taking and Counting Coup
      • Slavery
      • Population
  • Chapter II: Euro-American Contact
    • Explorers
    • Trapper-Traders
    • Missionaries
    • Settlers and Farmers
    • Miners
    • Military
    • Spokane Indian Reservation
    • Government and Mission Schools
  • Chapter III: Social and Political Organization
    • Social Organization
      • Kinship
    • Social Interaction
      • Gift-Giving
      • Social Control
    • Political Organization
      • Chieftainship
      • Councils
      • Crime and Punishment
  • Chapter IV: Life Cycle
    • Rites of Passage
    • Pre-Birth
      • Conception and Fetal Development
      • Prenatal Prohibitions
      • Couvade
      • Gender Determination
    • Birth
      • Birthing
      • Midwives
      • Birthmarks
      • Breast-feeding
      • Cradleboards and Bundling
      • Infertility
      • Feticide and Infanticide
      • Adoption and Fostering
      • Joking Relationship and Fictive Names
      • Enculturation
      • Punishment and Discipline
    • Naming
      • Formal Naming
      • Agnomens
    • Puberty
      • Boy's Puberty Ceremony
      • Girl's Puberty Ceremony
    • Marriage
      • Courtship
      • Love Charms
      • Bride-Price
      • Elopement
      • Preferred Marriage
      • Prescribed Marriage
      • Infant or Child Betrothal
      • Polygamy
      • Polygyny
      • Sororal Polygyny
      • Polyandry
      • Fraternal Polyandry
      • Sororate and Levirate
      • Bigamy
      • Bride Capture
      • Wife and Husband Stealing
      • Post-Nuptial Residence
      • In-law Avoidance
      • Husband-Wife Relations
      • Divorce
      • Remarriage
    • Censored Sexual Relations
      • Adultery
      • Rape
      • Incest
      • Berdache, Transvestism, and Homosexuality
      • Prostitution
    • Death
      • Sorcery-Induced Death
      • Suicide
      • Confession
      • Cleansing Ritual of the Deceased
      • Long-house Reception and Wake
      • Eulogies
      • Mortuary Feast
      • Burial Areas and Cemeteries.
      • Burial
      • Grave Goods
      • Post-Burial Purification
      • Grave Markers and Headstones
      • Mourning
      • Widows and Widowers
      • Memorial Feast and Give-Away Ceremony
      • Contemporary Mortuary Ritual
  • Chapter V: Settlement Patterns and Structures
    • Permanent Structures
      • Winter Villages
      • Semi-Subterranean Pit House
      • Subterranean Dwellings
      • Long-House
      • Ceremonial Long-House
      • Log Houses
      • Women's Winter Bathing Hut
    • Temporary Structures
      • Summer Mat Dwellings
      • Summer Hunting and Gathering Camps
      • Women's Semi-Subterranean Day Lodge
      • Women's Seclusion Structures
      • Winter Hunting Camps
      • Brush Shelters
      • Trappers' Winter Dwellings
      • Tule Mat Ramadas
      • Bark, Hide, and Canvas Tipis
      • Caves
      • Outhouses
      • Sweathouses
  • Chapter VI: Tool Making and Related Technologies
    • Multipurpose Technologies
    • Lithic Technology and Minerals
      • Weir Anchors and Net Weights
      • Mortars and Pestles
      • Flat Milling Stones
      • Hammers and Mauls
      • Splitting Wedges, Bifaces, and Adzes
      • Awls and Engravers
      • Tabular Knives/Spokeshave
      • Quartz, Basalt, Slate, and Crystal Implements
      • Pictographs and Petroglyphs
      • Clay
      • Ochre
    • Wood, Fiber, and Bark Technology
      • Stems and Bark
      • Sap
      • Pitch and Gum
      • Cambium
      • Lichens
      • Mosses
      • Leaves
      • Sedges and Bulrushes
      • Grasses and Cornhusks
      • Hemp
      • Fungi
      • Ferns
    • Hide, Horn, and Bone Technology
      • Butchering
      • Hide Preparation
      • Tanning
      • Hide-Smoking
      • Horn, Antler, Bone, Marrow, and Organs
  • Chapter VII: Environmental and Resource Stewardship
    • Selective Burning
  • Chapter VIII: Annual Subsistence Round
    • First Fruit Ceremony
    • Whipping Ceremony
    • Pre-Gathering Ritual
  • Chapter IX: Hunting
    • Technology
      • Bows
      • Bowstrings
      • Arrows and Projectile Points
      • Quivers
      • Wrist Guards
      • Spears
      • Atlatls
      • Slings
      • Throwing Sticks
      • Knives
      • Rifles
      • Traps, Snares, and Deadfalls
      • Pit-Snaring Eagles
      • Game Enclosures
      • Funnel Enclosures
      • Circle Drive or Surround
      • Tree-stands
      • Snow and Water Drives
      • Fire Drives
      • Deer Jumps
    • Hunting Methods
      • Tracking
      • Decoying
      • Stalking
      • Hunting
    • Animals Hunted
      • Bear
      • Moose and Bison
      • Deer, Elk, Antelope, and Mountain Sheep and Goats
      • Wolves, Wolverines, Cougars, Foxes, and Coyotes
      • Small Game
      • Beaver
      • Large Birds
      • Upland Birds
      • Waterfowl
      • Owls
      • Small Birds
      • Bird Eggs
      • Reptiles
      • Turtles
  • Chapter X: Gathering Technology
    • Technology
      • Digging Sticks
      • Pick and Hoe
      • Gathering
      • Roots
      • Nuts and Seeds
      • Berries and Fruits
    • Famine Foods
    • Farming and Animal Husbandry
  • Chapter XI: Fishing
    • Aquatic Animals
      • Salmon
      • Trout
      • Sturgeon
      • Catfish
      • Whitefish
      • Sucker
      • Bullhead
      • Minnows
      • Lamprey
      • Mussels
      • Crayfish
    • Fishing Technology
      • Weirs and Traps
      • Barrel Traps
      • Wedge Traps
      • Corral Traps
      • Raised Terraced Stone-Fishing Platform
      • Single or Multiple Stone Fishing Platform
      • Funnel and Cone Traps
      • Suspended Basket Traps
      • Fish Nets
      • Scaffold Platforms
      • Dip Nets
      • Double-Handled Dip Net
      • Drag-Nets
      • Stretch-Nets
      • Gill-Nets
      • Leisters, Spears, Harpoons, Gaffs, and Clubs
      • Line-fishing, Hooks, and Bait
      • Bow and Arrow Fishing
      • Torch-Fishing
      • Ice-Fishing
      • Fish-Lassoing
    • Major Spokan Fisheries
      • Kettle Falls Fishery
      • Little Falls Fishery
      • Little Spokane River Fishery
      • Spokane Falls Fishery
      • Latah Creek Fishery
  • Chapter XII: Firewood, Cooking, and Food Preservation
    • Firewood
      • Tree Felling
      • Tinder
      • Slow-Torch
      • Percussion Method
      • Fire Drills
      • Night Fires
    • Cooking
      • Cooking and Eating Utensils
      • Stone-boiling
      • Earth Ovens
      • Ember and Ash-cooking
      • Open Cooking
    • Food Preservation
      • Smoking and Drying Sheds
      • Meat-Drying Racks
      • Fish-Drying Racks
      • Jerky and Pemmican
      • Root and Berry Drying
    • Food and Wood Storage Facilities
      • Woodsheds
      • Storage Pits
    • Underground Caches
      • Root Cellars
      • Bank Caches
    • Rock Platform Caches
    • Storage Houses
    • Stone Over-Hang Caches
    • Platform Storage
    • Tree Storage
    • Hide and Intestine Food Containers
    • Bark, Root, and Hemp Baskets and Bags
  • Chapter XIII: Transportation Technology
    • Log Rafts
    • Bundle Boats and Tule Rafts
    • Dugouts
    • Bark and Wooden Canoes
    • Plank Boats
    • Poles and Paddles
    • Snowshoes
    • Sleighs, Toboggans, Improvised Sleds, and Tumplines
    • Horses
    • Dogs
    • Trails
    • Bridges and Stone Causeways
  • Chapter XIV: Clothing and Adornment
    • Clothing and Accoutrements
      • Sewing Needles and Thread
      • Dresses
      • Shirts
      • Breechcloths
      • Undergarments
      • Blankets
      • Capotes
      • Robes
      • Capes and Shawls
      • Leggings
      • Socks and Stockings
      • Moccasins
      • Hats, Headdresses, and Headbands
      • Head Scarves
      • Vests
      • Gloves and Mittens
      • Dancer's Apron
      • Belts and Suspenders
      • Bags and Pouches
      • Bustles and Roaches
      • Chokers
      • Breastplates
    • War Accouterments
      • War Spears
      • Shields
      • Clubs
      • War Shirts and Cuirasses
      • Helmets
      • Coup Stick
    • Personal Adornment
      • Facial Painting and Tattooing
      • Mutilation and Scarification
      • Beading and Porcupine Decoration
      • Necklaces and Pendants
      • Rings and Bracelets
      • Mineral and Plant Dyes
      • Hair Styles
      • Combs
  • Chapter XV: Tobacco and Pipe Complex
    • Smoking Ceremony
    • Tobacco
    • Stone, Clay, Wooden, and Copper Pipes
    • Pipe Stems
    • Pipe, Tobacco, and Utility Pouches
  • Chapter XVI: Games, Dances, and Music
    • Games
      • Wrestling
      • Kicking Game
      • Stone-Throwing and Lifting
      • Pulling
      • Hopping
      • Body-Spinning
      • Spinning Tops
      • Stick-game
      • Rolling Dice
      • Shinny
      • Ring Game
      • Ball and Pin
      • Spear-Ring Game
      • Ice and Snow Snakes
      • Snow Games
      • Sledding
      • Rolling Objects on Ice
      • Archery
      • Knife and Axe-Throwing
      • Horse Racing
      • Powwows
      • Rodeos
      • Stock Whips, Quirts, and Lassoing
      • Baseball
      • Agility and Balancing
      • Foot-Racing
      • Swimming
      • Dolls
      • Clay Projectiles
      • Stone-Skipping
      • Slings
      • Echo Games
      • Cloud Interpretations
      • Whistling
      • Cat's Cradle
      • Bullroarers
      • Storytelling
      • Stare-Downs
      • Shadow Figures
      • Card Games
      • Guessing Games
    • Dances
      • War Dance
      • Victory Dance
      • Sun Dance
      • Cup Dance
      • Friendship Dance
      • Circle Dance
      • Prairie Chicken Dance
      • Grass Dance
      • Dream Dance
      • Owl Dance
      • Horse-Tail Dance
      • Gift Dance
      • Winter Dance or Song Dance
      • Jump Dance
      • Medicine Dance
    • Musical Instruments and Songs
      • Songs
      • Flutes
      • Whistles
      • Drums
      • Rattles
  • Chapter XVII: Medicine and Health
    • Concepts of Illness and Disease
    • Medicaments
      • Dream Medicines
    • Shamans
    • Practitioners
      • Medicine Bundles
    • Curing Procedures and Techniques
      • Diagnosis
      • Group Medical Inquest
      • Medical Paraphernalia
      • Prophetic Medical Procedures
      • Patient Individuality
      • Sucking
      • Blowing
      • Acupressure
      • Laying of Hands
      • Hydrotherapy
      • Revulsive Medicines
      • Inhalation and Respiratory Phytotherapy
      • Coma
      • Mental Illness
      • Osteology
      • Reductions
      • Arthritis and Rheumatism
      • Paralysis
      • Muscular Therapy
      • Dental and Gums
      • Dermal Therapy
      • Warts
      • Neoplasms
      • Hematomas and Swellings
      • Wounds and Burn Therapy
      • Cardiovascular
      • Bleeding
      • Blood Purifiers
      • Menstruation and Birthing
      • Gynecological and Obstetrical Treatments
    • Gastrointestinal
      • Hiccups
      • Urinary Tract
      • Geophagy
      • Diarrhea
      • Laxatives and Diuretics
      • Hemorrhoids
      • Ear, Nose, and Throat
      • Eyes
      • Fever and Headache
      • Colds and Influenza
      • Poisons
      • Parasites and Insects
      • Bandages
      • Sewage Pharmacology
      • Horse and Dog Medicines
      • Non-Traditional Diseases
    • Sanitation and Hygiene
      • Bathing
      • Perfumes
      • Shampoo and Hair Tonics
      • Deodorants
      • Depilation
      • Dental Care
      • Hygiene
  • Chapter XVIII: Religion and Mythology
    • Religion
      • Supernatural Power or Magic
      • Sweathouse Rituals
      • Vision Quest
      • Guardian Spirit
      • Power Songs
      • Shamanism
      • Sorcery
      • Ghosts
      • Monsters and Theriomorphic Beings
      • Stick and Bank Indians
      • Omens and Dreams
      • Mid-Winter Ceremony
      • Bluejay Ceremony
      • Proto-historical and Historical Syncretic and Prophetic Movements and Religions
    • Mythology
  • Chapter XIX: Natural Phenomena
    • Constellations
    • Meteorology
      • Weather Control
      • Weather Indications
    • Seasons
      • Lunar Months
      • Calendar Sticks
      • Days of the Week
    • Measurements
    • Directions
    • Numbers
      • Geonomic Designations
  • Chapter XX: Conclusion
  • Afterword
  • Appendices
    • Appendix A: Prehistoric Spokane—An Indian Legend
    • Appendix B: How the Spokane River was Formed
    • Appendix C: Coyote Creates Spokane Falls
    • Appendix D: How the Sun Disc Came to Spokane
    • Appendix E: Spokan Consanguineal Kin Terms
    • Appendix F: Story of a Small Boy's Adoption by Bears
    • Appendix G: Boy Receiving His Tutelary Spirit
    • Appendix H: Boy's Vision Quest
    • Appendix I: Boy's Lake Vision Quest
    • Appendix J: Account of Starvation
    • Appendix K: Origin of the Bullhead
    • Appendix L: Observations of Beavers
    • Appendix M: Origin of Chewelah-Spokan Group—Oral History
    • Appendix N: Account of Bluejay
    • Appendix O: Ghosts and Mental Illness
    • Appendix P: Creation, to an Indian
  • Historically Significant Contributions by Selected Early Explorers and Naturalists
  • Bibliography
  • Index