Build Mobile Websites and Apps for Smart Devices

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Build Mobile Websites and Apps for Smart Devices

With the proliferation of handheld devices that allow access to the Web, more business owners and other technology decision-makers are demanding that their organizations' websites be fully accessible on those devices, and even be repackaged as new web-based applications. But designers and developers who may be quite proficient in making non-mobile websites and web apps, can feel uncertain as to how to craft those products, or even where to start the process of learning how to do so. Recently, several books have been published to address this need, including Build Mobile Websites and Apps for Smart Devices, authored by Earle Castledine, Myles Eftos, and Max Wheeler.

This title was published by SitePoint on 29 June 2011, under the ISBN 978-0987090843. The book's contents span 300 pages, and are organized into a preface, eight chapters, an appendix, and an index. The preface contains the usual meta information about a technical book; but what really shines is its intro section, which enthusiastically entices the reader to jump into the burgeoning field of mobile web development. The appendix, comprising little more than two pages, presents only the most basic information on how to utilize whatever native web server might be running on the reader's Linux, OS X, or Windows Vista/7 machine. The more than 49 percent of computer owners still using Windows XP (as of this writing), will need to look elsewhere for information on installing and configuring Apache, IIS, or some other web server, should they want to test their apps locally. In terms of prerequisites for this book, readers are expected to be proficient in HTML, CSS, and JavaScript, but not necessarily HTML5 and CSS3, whose concepts are explained as needed throughout the text.

The publisher maintains a web page for the book, where visitors can find the table of contents, errata (none as of this writing), the book's index, and three free sample chapters (Chapters 1, 2, and 4) in PDF format. Visitors can order the print version of the book, the electronic version (in three different formats: PDF, EPUB, and MOBI), and an online course hosted by Learnable (comprising lessons, video tutorials, Q&A sessions, and the example code).

The first chapter introduces the basic concepts and rationale of mobile apps, as well as some of the key decisions one will face in creating them, such as whether to make a web app versus a native app, and the options for providing a mobile experience. The authors briefly describe the example app — a tool for recording and sharing celebrity sightings — which is designed and created sequentially in the material that follows. But the chapter does not fulfill the promise made for it in the preface, where the reader is told he will "be guided through the process of designing and building a mobile web application"; on the contrary, the chapter does not explain how to design and build one.

That effort begins in the second chapter, where the authors discuss some high-level considerations for designing the user interfaces of mobile devices, as well as the benefits and drawbacks of various navigation and content structuring options. The bulk of the narrative involves wireframing the design for the example app, selecting colors and fonts, and crafting an appropriate icon for it. Readers learn of the advantages of using relative units in their CSS, but not how to get all the elements positioned properly regardless of the target device's resolution, when mixing relative units for text and pixel units for images. The section "Scalable Images", later in the subsequent chapter, is a start, but is not sufficient for non-SVG images.

Chapter 3, "Markup for Mobile", is the longest of them all, primarily because it presents much if not all of the source code written by the authors for the initial version of their example app. The majority of the code is in HTML and CSS, with a focus upon the effects made possible using HTML5 and CSS3. Also discussed are the resource limitations of typical mobile devices, content and menu display options, image techniques and scalability, viewport meta element settings, icons, multimedia, and more. Oddly, on pages 71-72, the resource limitations of iOS are repeated, with only slightly different wording. How could the proofreaders have missed this glaring redundancy?

The fourth chapter, "Mobile Web Apps", addresses the logical next step: enhancing a mobile website so it can function as a web app — for which JavaScript is used extensively. After briefly mentioning a couple of the better-known mobile development frameworks, the authors select jQuery as a library for working with the DOM, to speed development and make the example code more platform neutral. There follows an interesting discussion of touch events on mobile devices, how they compare to mouse events, and techniques for best handling them. But the main goal is to show how to load, swap, and go back to pages so as to most closely simulate the snappy behavior of native apps. The extensive code and narrative in this chapter are the most complex of any in the book, and thus will likely be the most challenging for any reader who is not adept with JavaScript and/or jQuery, or who does not have the patience to work through the example code.

At first glance, it would appear that native apps have a huge advantage over web apps, in that they can access information from their mobile devices' capabilities — such as accelerometers and cameras — historically unavailable to mobile web browsers. Fortunately, an increasing number of standard interfaces are allowing web apps to access that data — and this is the topic of the fifth chapter. The reader is shown how to capture and utilize geolocation data, device rotation and acceleration, as well as shake and touch gestures. The chapter concludes with coverage of how to use HTML5 Offline Web Applications API for enabling an app to work when no network access is available. The subsequent chapter, "Polishing up Our App", shows the reader how to do just that — specifically, preventing the navigation header from scrolling off the screen, handling click processing delays, displaying dialog boxes, storing data on the client device, and other differences. The narrative is clear, except for a perplexing ornithological expression, "Duck-type" (page 182). Experienced developers will appreciate the section on mobile coding best practices, based on controllers and custom events — for minimizing programming headaches as a project's code becomes sizable.

The last two chapters explain how to convert a web app into a native app, using PhoneGap, an HTML5 application platform that allows a Web app to access those resources of the mobile device that would otherwise be unavailable, such as data in the filesystem and images from any built-in camera. Before demonstrating the details of how to implement those capabilities, the authors show how to install the development environments for all of the supported platforms (including Apple iOS and Google Android), and then PhoneGap itself. Lastly, readers learn how to try to monetize their finished web apps by uploading them to the various app stores.

The authors make extensive use of example source code, to illustrate the ideas being discussed, which works well, partly because the code is generally explained clearly and commented as needed. A code archive is available containing the source code used in the book, except that of the first two chapters and the last two, which collectively is minimal. (Look for the "Downloads" button on that GitHub page to avoid having to download all the files separately.) Beware that some of the sample code appears to be incorrect or incomplete, e.g., stars.html in the directories "ch3" and "ch4" appear to be unstyled, and "javascripts/ch3/untitled file" is empty. Readers who elect to type in any code directly from the book, should watch out for "curly quotes" (e.g., page 230), and instead substitute the corresponding straight equivalents.

In terms of the physical presentation of the book, at 9.9 x 8 inches, it is taller and wider than the standard nowadays, allowing for what appears to be a relatively larger font, which makes the text more readable. The attractive color figures are a welcome change from the usual black-and-white screenshots found in most computer books. They enhance the overall appearance of the book's interior and the experience of reading the narrative.

Speaking of which, most of the narrative is quite clear. However, one critical topic for mobile design is screen resolution, including how to best defensively account for that in one's design and coding. This book's coverage of the topic is divided into at least two different places (pages 40 and 55), and should have been consolidated, in the third chapter. Unlike most programming books littered with chapter summaries, this one appears to have only one section with a summary, which oddly does not summarize the information presented in the section, but instead offers some interpretation thereof. Also, American readers might stumble over a few of the words that use the English/Australian spelling, e.g., "licence" (page 239).

Some of the phrasing will likely befuddle the majority of readers, especially in cases where the authors fail to define their terms, e.g., the first bullet point on page 47. There are a few minor inconsistencies in the writing, such as "fill out forms" and "fill in a form" (on the same page, 32), but nothing that would cause confusion on the reader's part. The overall writing style is friendly, although sometimes overdone with an excessive use of exclamation marks (e.g., page 40). The text contains some errata (including several that suggest that the SitePoint copyeditors are unfamiliar with the ability of even a common word processor such as Microsoft Word to detect duplicate words): "to thank to" (page xxi), "the the" (pages 8 and 84), "for for" (13), "look at [in] Chapter 6" (34), "let[']s break" (44), ", (" (54 and 142), "no way to we can used" (55), "[up] to this point" (82), "try and" (82, 93, 131, and 167; should read "try to"), "support [for] standalone mode" (89), "are are" (139), "it's" (162; should read "its"), "if there are" (172; should read "if there were"), "ultimately .depend" (196), "On[c]e you've installed" (203), "we're yet" (212; should read "we've yet"), "an an" (225), "more detail that" (238; should read "more detail than"), and "a a" (240).

Yet none of the aforementioned problems are of great significance, and do not detract from the value of the material presented. All three authors have extensive experience in designing and developing mobile web applications, and this is reflected in the authority with which they not only offer the technical details, but also make recommendations to the reader. This book would serve as an excellent starting point for any web programmer who wishes to learn how to create mobile websites and applications.

Copyright © 2011 Michael J. Ross. All rights reserved.
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